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here's everything about the cancer diseases

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

 Risk Factors for Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the breast. These abnormal cells grow and divide faster than normal cells. They can also invade the breast and surrounding tissue and spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Breast cancer is a disease of humans and other mammals; while the overwhelming majority of cases in humans are women, men can also develop breast cancer.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer:
-Being a woman : simply being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer. Men can get breast cancer , too, but this disease is about 100 times more common in women than in men.

-As you get older, your risk of breast cancer goes up. Most breast cancers are found in women age 55 and older.

- If a close relative has or has had, breast cancer, the risk is higher.
Women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both. These genes can be inherited. TP53 is another gene that is linked to a greater breast cancer risk

- Women who have had breast cancer before are more likely to have it again, compared with those who have no history of the disease.
Having some types of benign, or non-cancerous breast lumps increases the chance of developing cancer later on. Examples include atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ.


-Overall, white women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. But in women under age 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women. African-American women are also more likely to die from breastcancer at any age. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.

- Breast cancer is more likely to develop in higher density breast tissue

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating early (especially before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be due to a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they went through menopause later (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be because they have a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer (such as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This varies with the patient’s age when they got radiation. The risk is highest if you had radiation as a teen or young adult, when your breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.

- Women who are overweight or have obesity after menopause may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, possibly due to higher levels of estrogen. High sugar intake may also be a factor.

-Not being physically active

-Women who have not had children or who had their first child after age 30 have a slightly higher breast cancer risk overall. Having many pregnancies and becoming pregnant at an early age reduces breast cancer risk. Still, the effect of pregnancy seems to be different for different types of breast cancer. For a certain type of breast cancer known as triple-negative, pregnancy seems to increase risk.

-Not breastfeeding

-Some studies suggest that breastfeeding may slightly lower breast cancer risk, especially if it’s continued for 1½ to 2 years. But this has been hard to study, especially in countries like the United States, where breastfeeding for this long is uncommon.

-- The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral birth control pills have been linked to breast cancer, due to increased levels of estrogen.
Symptoms
The first symptoms of breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast, or a lump in the breast or in an armpit.
Other symptoms include:
 a pain in the armpits or breast that does not change with the monthly cycle
 pitting or redness of the skin of the breast, like the skin of an orange
  a rash around or on one of the nipples
 a discharge from a nipple, possibly containing blood
a sunken or inverted nipple
 a change in the size or shape of the breast

  peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin on the breast or nipple
Most lumps are not cancerous, but women should have them checked by a health care professional.

Prevention
There is no sure way to prevent breast cancer, but some lifestyle decisions can significantly reduce the risk of breast and other types of cancer.
These include:
§    avoiding excess alcohol consumption
§    following a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables
  getting enough exercise
   maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI)
  Early detection and treatment is still the best strategy for a better cancer outcome. The following is a common strategy, but ask your doctor exactly what you should do to help prevent breast cancer or find it early:
-Check your breasts once a month, three to five days after your menstrual period ends. Have a thorough medical checkup once a year, and have annual mammograms. Some experts, including the American Cancer Society, recommend starting screening mammography at age 45, while others recommend beginning regular mammogram screening at age 50.Some experts recommend starting mammograms at age 40 or earlier, especially if you have a family history of breast cancer. Talk to your doctor about when you should have your first mammogram.

  If you use contraception, ask your doctor about the pros and cons of birth control pills.
  If you are near or in menopause, ask your doctor if you should use hormone replacement therapy to treat menopause symptoms. Studies suggest that hormone replacement, especially therapies with a combination of estrogens and progestins, can increase the risk of breast cancer. You and your doctor can make this decision based on your risk of breast cancer.
  If you are at high risk for breast cancer, certain drugs that block the effects of estrogen, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer. The risks and benefits of using these medications should be discussed with your doctor.

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Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer 


Breast cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the breast. These abnormal cells grow and divide faster than normal cells. They can also invade the breast and surrounding tissue and spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Breast cancer is a disease of humans and other mammals; while the overwhelming majority of cases in humans are women, men can also develop breast cancer.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer:
-Being a woman : simply being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer. Men can get breast cancer, too, but this disease is about 100 times more common in women than in men.

-As you get older, your risk of breast cancer goes up. Most breast cancers are found in women age 55 and older.

- If a close relative has or has had, breast cancer, the risk is higher.
Women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both. These genes can be inherited. TP53 is another gene that is linked to a greater breast cancer risk

- Women who have had breast cancer before are more likely to have it again, compared with those who have no history of the disease.
Having some types of benign, or non-cancerous breast lumps increases the chance of developing cancer later on. Examples include atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ.
-Overall, white women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. But in women under age 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women. African-American women are also more likely to die from breastcancer at any age. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.

- Breast cancer is more likely to develop in higher density breast tissue

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating early (especially before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be due to a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they went through menopause later (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be because they have a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer (such as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This varies with the patient’s age when they got radiation. The risk is highest if you had radiation as a teen or young adult, when your breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.

- Women who are overweight or have obesity after menopause may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, possibly due to higher levels of estrogen. High sugar intake may also be a factor.

-Not being physically active

-Women who have not had children or who had their first child after age 30 have a slightly higher breast cancer risk overall. Having many pregnancies and becoming pregnant at an early age reduces breast cancer risk. Still, the effect of pregnancy seems to be different for different types of breast cancer. For a certain type of breast cancer known as triple-negative, pregnancy seems to increase risk.

-Not breastfeeding

-Some studies suggest that breastfeeding may slightly lower breast cancer risk, especially if it’s continued for 1½ to 2 years. But this has been hard to study, especially in countries like the United States, where breastfeeding for this long is uncommon.

-- The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral birth control pills have been linked to breast cancer, due to increased levels of estrogen.


Symptoms:
The first symptoms of breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast, or a lump in the breast or in an armpit.
Other symptoms include:
§    a pain in the armpits or breast that does not change with the monthly cycle
§    pitting or redness of the skin of the breast, like the skin of an orange
§    a rash around or on one of the nipples
§    a discharge from a nipple, possibly containing blood
§    a sunken or inverted nipple
§    a change in the size or shape of the breast
§    peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin on the breast or nipple
Most lumps are not cancerous, but women should have them checked by a health care professional.

Prevention:
There is no sure way to prevent breast cancer, but some lifestyle decisions can significantly reduce the risk of breast and other types of cancer.
These include:
§    avoiding excess alcohol consumption
§    following a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables
§    getting enough exercise
§    maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI)
§    Early detection and treatment is still the best strategy for a better cancer outcome. The following is a common strategy, but ask your doctor exactly what you should do to help prevent breast cancer or find it early:
-Check your breasts once a month, three to five days after your menstrual period ends. Have a thorough medical checkup once a year, and have annual mammograms. Some experts, including the American Cancer Society, recommend starting screening mammography at age 45, while others recommend beginning regular mammogram screening at age 50.Some experts recommend starting mammograms at age 40 or earlier, especially if you have a family history of breast cancer. Talk to your doctor about when you should have your first mammogram.

§    If you use contraception, ask your doctor about the pros and cons of birth control pills.
§    If you are near or in menopause, ask your doctor if you should use hormone replacement therapy to treat menopause symptoms. Studies suggest that hormone replacement, especially therapies with a combination of estrogens and progestins, can increase the risk of breast cancer. You and your doctor can make this decision based on your risk of breast cancer.
§    If you are at high risk for breast cancer, certain drugs that block the effects of estrogen, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer. The risks and benefits of using these medications should be discussed with your doctor.

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Male Breast Cancer

Male Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the breast. Breast cancer happens mainly in women. But men can get it too. Many people do not know that men can get breast cancer. It is usually found in men between 60 and 70 years of age. Male breast cancer makes up less than 1% of all cases of breast cancer.

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Risks and complication of Mastectomy

Risks and complication of Mastectomy

This surgery is very safe. But there are several possible risks and complications. These are unlikely but possible. You need to know about them just in case they happen. By being informed, you may be able to help your health care provider find complications early. The risks and complications include those related to anesthesia and those related to any type of surgery.


 

Risks of general anesthesia include nausea, vomiting, inability to urinate normally, cut lips, chipped teeth, sore throat and headache. More serious risks of general anesthesia include heart attacks, strokes and pneumonia. Your anesthesiologist will discuss these risks with you and ask you if you are allergic to certain medicines.Blood clots in the legs can happen due to inactivity during and after the surgery. These usually show up a few days after surgery. They cause the leg to swell and hurt. Blood clots can become dislodged from the leg and go to the lungs where they will cause shortness of breath, chest pain and possibly death. Sometimes the shortness of breath can happen without warning. It is extremely important to let your health care providers know if any of these symptoms happen. Getting out of bed shortly after surgery may help decrease the risk of blood clots in the legs. Some of the risks are seen in any type of surgery. These include:

1.    Infection, deep or at the skin level. Treating deep infections may require long-termantibiotics and possibly surgery.

2.    Bleeding, either during or after the operation. This may require a blood transfusion or another operation. Fluid may collect under the skin, which is known as "seroma". This fluid may need to be taken out with a needle or another operation. A seroma could cause the incision to open up.

3.    Skin scar.

Other risks and complications are related specifically to this surgery. These are rare. But it is important to know about them. Nerves running through the axilla may be injured. This can cause shoulder weakness, loss of sensation or arm pain. But it is rare for this to happen. When underarm lymph nodes are removed, the involved arm may swell. Occasionally, an elastic arm stocking, or other methods, might be needed to reduce the swelling. After the operation, some patients feel sad because of the diagnosis and because of the disfigurement. Even though this is normal, you should let your health care provider know about these feelings. Breast reconstruction is available and helpful.

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Aggressive breast cancer protein discovered

Aggressive breast cancer protein discovered

The study was carried out by researchers from Queen Mary, University of London, and was funded by the Breast Cancer Campaign and the Medical Research Council. "A breakthrough by scientists could lead to a new treatment for one of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer" the Mail Online reports.


 

Researchers have identified a protein called integrin αvβ6, which may help trigger the spread of some types of breast cancer.

Up to a third of breast cancers are HER2-positive cancers. These are cases of breast cancer where growth is driven by a protein called human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These types of cancer can be particularly aggressive.

Seventy percent of people with HER2-positive breast cancers develop resistance to Herceptin, the main drug treatment for these cancers, effectively leaving them with no treatment options.

This laboratory study examined samples of breast cancer tissue from two cohorts of women with breast cancer. Researchers looked at the expression of a protein called integrin αvβ6, which has been shown to interact with HER2 to stimulate cancer growth.

The researchers found women who had higher expression of integrin αvβ6 in their breast cancer tissue had poorer five-year survival rates, particularly when they were also HER2 positive.

The researchers then studied mice that had been grafted with breast cancer tissue. But a potential new treatment called 264RAD was found to block integrin αvβ6 in the rodents.

Giving this treatment in combination with Herceptin stopped cancer growth, even in breast cancer tissues resistant to Herceptin.

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