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Colorectal Cancer

 

 
Definition:
Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum and the chances of getting it increase among people over the age of fifty, and although it is a highly preventable cancer, it often causes death because people are very embarrassed to undergo the early detection. There are no known causes of the colon cancer.
Causes:
There is no specific cause of colon cancer, as it may be caused by several different factors, and the causes of cancer are still largely unknown. However, some causes may lead to this, namely
·    Chemicals and carcinogens.
·    Radioactive materials and radiation.
·    Hormonal or genetic dysfunction.
·    Hereditary and family history of the disease.
Risk Factors:
The factors that may increase the risk of colorectal cancer are:
·    Your risk of colorectal cancer goes up as you age.
·    Inflammatory intestinal conditions: Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
·    A family (or personal) history of colorectal cancer or colorectal polyps.
·    Reliance on low-fiber, high-fat diet.
·    Red meat or processed meat.
·    Lack of physical activities.
·    Diabetics.
·    Obesity.
Symptoms:
Early symptoms of the disease: The presence of one of these symptoms does not necessarily mean the presence of cancerous tumor.
·    A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool for more than two weeks.
·    Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool.
·    Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain.
·    The feeling of abdominal pain and swelling of the colon, constantly.
·    Weakness or fatigue, lack of appetite for food, and unexplained deterioration of health.
·    Unexplained weight loss.
·    Unexplained severe anemia, with aging.
Diagnosis:
History of the disease and physical exam:
·    To detect a personal or family history of the colorectal cancer.
·    To detect a personal or family history of the polyps in the colon and rectum.
·    To detect any symptoms of the colorectal cancer.
Examinations and tests:
·    Stool blood test (for hidden blood in stool).
·    Screening with special scope (partial or full colonoscopy of the colon).
·    Radiographic Test.
Complications:
Complications depend on several factors:
The stage during which the diseases is diagnosed, the stage of the spread of the cancer cells, finding colon cancer at its earliest stage provides the greatest chance for a cure.
There are complications and effects of the type and stages of the treatment used:
·    The side effects of chemotherapy and radiation.
·    The side effects of surgical treatment.
·    Failure to respond to treatment or reoccurrence of the disease.
Treatment:
·    Treatment options depend on the following:
1.    Type of tumor.
2.    Place of tumor.
3.    Stage and spread of tumor.
4.    General condition of the patient.
5.    Having other diseases.
·    Methods of treatment:
1.    Surgical treatment.
2.    Chemotherapy.
3.    Radiation therapy.
4.    Immunotherapy.

Prevention:
Methods to prevent the colorectal cancer:
·    Quit Smoking.
·    Avoid obesity and maintain normal weight.
·    Reduce fat, especially saturated fats.
·    Eat fruits, vegetables and healthy food rich in fiber.
·    Exercise regularly.
·    Consult your doctor if there are abnormal changes in your body.

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