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Ebola hemorrhagic fever

Ebola hemorrhagic fever

Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe and often deadly illness that can occur in humans and primates (e.g. monkeys, gorillas). Ebola hemorrhagic fever has made worldwide news because of its destructive potential.

 

Causes

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola fever) is caused by a virus belonging to the family called Filoviridae. Scientists have identified five types of Ebola virus. Four have been reported to cause disease in humans: Ebola-Zaire virus, Ebola-Sudan virus, Ebola-Ivory Coast virus, and Ebola-Bundibugyo. The human disease has so far been limited to parts of Africa. The rest on type of Ebola virus has recently been found in the Philippines.

The disease can be passed to humans from infected animals and animal materials. Ebola can also be spread between humans by close contact with infected body fluids or through infected needles in the hospital.

Symptoms

During the incubation period, which can last about 1 week (rarely up to 2 weeks) after infection, symptoms include:

·    Arthritis

·    Backache (low-back pain)

·    Chills

·    Diarrhea

·    Fatigue

·    Fever

·    Headache

·    Malaise

·    Nausea

·    Sore throat

·    Vomiting

Late symptoms include:

·    Bleeding from eyes, ears, and nose

·    Bleeding from the mouth and rectum (gastrointestinal bleeding)

·    Eye swelling (conjunctivitis)

·    Genital swelling (labia and scrotum)

·    Increased feeling of pain in the skin

·    Rash over the entire body that often contains blood (hemorrhagic)

·    Roof of mouth looks red

There may be signs and symptoms of:

·    Coma

·    Disseminated intravascular coagulation

·    Shock

Treatment

There is no known cure. Existing medicines that fight viruses (antivirals) do not work well against Ebola virus.

The patient is usually hospitalized and will most likely need intensive care. Supportive measures for shock include medications and fluids given through a vein.

Bleeding problems may require transfusions of platelets or fresh blood.

Prevention

Avoid areas in which there are epidemics. Wear a gown, gloves, and mask around sick patients. These precautions will greatly decrease the risk of transmission.

 

 

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Thursday, 19 October 2017

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