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Wash Your Hand

Hand washing with water and soap is one of the most effective and inexpensive way to prevent the spread of many kinds of pathogenic infections such as diarrhea and pneumonia, the major cause of mortality among children. Also, handwashing with water and soap helps to avoid skin and eye infection and the spread of seasonal flu.
 
There is no doubt that handwashing is a simple and easy behavior that can be practiced at all times and in any circumstances, whether at home, school or place of work, in addition to health facilities where clean hands prevent the spread of germs from one person to another, and in spite of that some people are careless about this behavior.
 
When to wash your hands?
·    Before, during, and after preparing food.
·    Before eating food.
·    Before and after caring for someone who is sick.
·    Before and after treating a cut or wound.
·    After using the toilet.
·    After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet.
·    After coughing or sneezing.
·    After touching an animal, animal feed or animal waste.
·    After touching garbage.
 
Misconception about handwashing:
Some people may think that washing hands with water only is enough to clean them; on the contrary water alone is not enough to kill disease-causing germs. However, soap gets rid of fats and grime that carry germs.
 
Parents can help their children to make handwashing a habit:
·    Teaching them techniques of washing hands thoroughly.
·    Reminding them to wash their hands.
·    Wash your hands together with your children. 

Alcohol-based hand sanitizers:
In place of water and soap you may use alcohol-based hand sanitizers. The product content of alcohol ranges from 60-80%, and it is fast-acting and suitable to get rid of most of the germs on your han

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The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness

 

The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness

Arthritis is inflammation of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age.
Symptoms:
·    Pain.
·    Stiffness.
·    Swelling.
·    Redness.
·    Weakness of movement.
Arthritis Risk Factors:
·    Family history: Some types of arthritis run in families, so you may be more likely to develop arthritis if your parents or siblings have the disorder. Your genes can make you more susceptible to environmental factors that may trigger arthritis.
·    Age: The risk of many types of arthritis — including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout — increases with age.
·    Your sex: Women are more likely than are men to develop arthritis.
·    Previous joint injury: People who have injured a joint, perhaps while playing a sport, are more likely to eventually develop arthritis in that joint.
·    Obesity: Carrying excess pounds puts stress on joints, particularly your knees, hips and spine. Obese people have a higher risk of developing arthritis.
Complications:
Severe arthritis, particularly if it affects your hands or arms, can make it difficult for you to do daily tasks. Arthritis of weight-bearing joints can keep you from walking comfortably or sitting up straight. In some cases, joints may become twisted and deformed.
 
Diagnosis:
·     Lab tests:
Examining and analyzing various body fluids could help identify inflammation type.
Body fluids to be examined and analyzed are:
·    Blood.
·    Urine.
·    Joint fluid.
Imaging:
·    X-Ray imaging.
·    CT scan.
·    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
·    Ultrasound.
Treatment:
Arthritis treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and improving joint function.
Medication:
·    Analgesic drug: This type of medication helps to ease the pain, but it does not affect the inflammation.
·    Non - Steroidal Anti - Inflammatory Drug (NASID).
·    Corticosteroid.
Physical therapy: Can be helpful for some types of arthritis. Exercises can improve range of motion and strengthen the muscles surrounding joints. In some cases, splints or braces may be warranted.
Surgery: If conservative measures don't help, doctors may suggest surgery, such as:
·    Synovectomy
·    Joint replacement.
·    Joint fusion.

Arthritis is inflammation of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age.
Symptoms:
·    Pain.
·    Stiffness.
·    Swelling.
·    Redness.
·    Weakness of movement.
Arthritis Risk Factors:
·    Family history: Some types of arthritis run in families, so you may be more likely to develop arthritis if your parents or siblings have the disorder. Your genes can make you more susceptible to environmental factors that may trigger arthritis.
·    Age: The risk of many types of arthritis — including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout — increases with age.
·    Your sex: Women are more likely than are men to develop arthritis.
·    Previous joint injury: People who have injured a joint, perhaps while playing a sport, are more likely to eventually develop arthritis in that joint.
·    Obesity: Carrying excess pounds puts stress on joints, particularly your knees, hips and spine. Obese people have a higher risk of developing arthritis.
Complications:
Severe arthritis, particularly if it affects your hands or arms, can make it difficult for you to do daily tasks. Arthritis of weight-bearing joints can keep you from walking comfortably or sitting up straight. In some cases, joints may become twisted and deformed.
 
Diagnosis:
·     Lab tests:
Examining and analyzing various body fluids could help identify inflammation type.
Body fluids to be examined and analyzed are:
·    Blood.
·    Urine.
·    Joint fluid.
Imaging:
·    X-Ray imaging.
·    CT scan.
·    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
·    Ultrasound.
Treatment:
Arthritis treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and improving joint function.
Medication:
·    Analgesic drug: This type of medication helps to ease the pain, but it does not affect the inflammation.
·    Non - Steroidal Anti - Inflammatory Drug (NASID).
·    Corticosteroid.
Physical therapy: Can be helpful for some types of arthritis. Exercises can improve range of motion and strengthen the muscles surrounding joints. In some cases, splints or braces may be warranted.
Surgery: If conservative measures don't help, doctors may suggest surgery, such as:
·    Synovectomy
·    Joint replacement.
·    Joint fusion.

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Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

 Risk Factors for Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the breast. These abnormal cells grow and divide faster than normal cells. They can also invade the breast and surrounding tissue and spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Breast cancer is a disease of humans and other mammals; while the overwhelming majority of cases in humans are women, men can also develop breast cancer.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer:
-Being a woman : simply being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer. Men can get breast cancer , too, but this disease is about 100 times more common in women than in men.

-As you get older, your risk of breast cancer goes up. Most breast cancers are found in women age 55 and older.

- If a close relative has or has had, breast cancer, the risk is higher.
Women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both. These genes can be inherited. TP53 is another gene that is linked to a greater breast cancer risk

- Women who have had breast cancer before are more likely to have it again, compared with those who have no history of the disease.
Having some types of benign, or non-cancerous breast lumps increases the chance of developing cancer later on. Examples include atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ.


-Overall, white women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. But in women under age 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women. African-American women are also more likely to die from breastcancer at any age. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.

- Breast cancer is more likely to develop in higher density breast tissue

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating early (especially before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be due to a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they went through menopause later (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be because they have a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer (such as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This varies with the patient’s age when they got radiation. The risk is highest if you had radiation as a teen or young adult, when your breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.

- Women who are overweight or have obesity after menopause may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, possibly due to higher levels of estrogen. High sugar intake may also be a factor.

-Not being physically active

-Women who have not had children or who had their first child after age 30 have a slightly higher breast cancer risk overall. Having many pregnancies and becoming pregnant at an early age reduces breast cancer risk. Still, the effect of pregnancy seems to be different for different types of breast cancer. For a certain type of breast cancer known as triple-negative, pregnancy seems to increase risk.

-Not breastfeeding

-Some studies suggest that breastfeeding may slightly lower breast cancer risk, especially if it’s continued for 1½ to 2 years. But this has been hard to study, especially in countries like the United States, where breastfeeding for this long is uncommon.

-- The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral birth control pills have been linked to breast cancer, due to increased levels of estrogen.
Symptoms
The first symptoms of breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast, or a lump in the breast or in an armpit.
Other symptoms include:
 a pain in the armpits or breast that does not change with the monthly cycle
 pitting or redness of the skin of the breast, like the skin of an orange
  a rash around or on one of the nipples
 a discharge from a nipple, possibly containing blood
a sunken or inverted nipple
 a change in the size or shape of the breast

  peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin on the breast or nipple
Most lumps are not cancerous, but women should have them checked by a health care professional.

Prevention
There is no sure way to prevent breast cancer, but some lifestyle decisions can significantly reduce the risk of breast and other types of cancer.
These include:
§    avoiding excess alcohol consumption
§    following a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables
  getting enough exercise
   maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI)
  Early detection and treatment is still the best strategy for a better cancer outcome. The following is a common strategy, but ask your doctor exactly what you should do to help prevent breast cancer or find it early:
-Check your breasts once a month, three to five days after your menstrual period ends. Have a thorough medical checkup once a year, and have annual mammograms. Some experts, including the American Cancer Society, recommend starting screening mammography at age 45, while others recommend beginning regular mammogram screening at age 50.Some experts recommend starting mammograms at age 40 or earlier, especially if you have a family history of breast cancer. Talk to your doctor about when you should have your first mammogram.

  If you use contraception, ask your doctor about the pros and cons of birth control pills.
  If you are near or in menopause, ask your doctor if you should use hormone replacement therapy to treat menopause symptoms. Studies suggest that hormone replacement, especially therapies with a combination of estrogens and progestins, can increase the risk of breast cancer. You and your doctor can make this decision based on your risk of breast cancer.
  If you are at high risk for breast cancer, certain drugs that block the effects of estrogen, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer. The risks and benefits of using these medications should be discussed with your doctor.

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Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer 


Breast cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in the breast. These abnormal cells grow and divide faster than normal cells. They can also invade the breast and surrounding tissue and spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Breast cancer is a disease of humans and other mammals; while the overwhelming majority of cases in humans are women, men can also develop breast cancer.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer:
-Being a woman : simply being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer. Men can get breast cancer, too, but this disease is about 100 times more common in women than in men.

-As you get older, your risk of breast cancer goes up. Most breast cancers are found in women age 55 and older.

- If a close relative has or has had, breast cancer, the risk is higher.
Women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both. These genes can be inherited. TP53 is another gene that is linked to a greater breast cancer risk

- Women who have had breast cancer before are more likely to have it again, compared with those who have no history of the disease.
Having some types of benign, or non-cancerous breast lumps increases the chance of developing cancer later on. Examples include atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ.
-Overall, white women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. But in women under age 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women. African-American women are also more likely to die from breastcancer at any age. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.

- Breast cancer is more likely to develop in higher density breast tissue

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating early (especially before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be due to a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they went through menopause later (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be because they have a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

-Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer (such as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This varies with the patient’s age when they got radiation. The risk is highest if you had radiation as a teen or young adult, when your breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.

- Women who are overweight or have obesity after menopause may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, possibly due to higher levels of estrogen. High sugar intake may also be a factor.

-Not being physically active

-Women who have not had children or who had their first child after age 30 have a slightly higher breast cancer risk overall. Having many pregnancies and becoming pregnant at an early age reduces breast cancer risk. Still, the effect of pregnancy seems to be different for different types of breast cancer. For a certain type of breast cancer known as triple-negative, pregnancy seems to increase risk.

-Not breastfeeding

-Some studies suggest that breastfeeding may slightly lower breast cancer risk, especially if it’s continued for 1½ to 2 years. But this has been hard to study, especially in countries like the United States, where breastfeeding for this long is uncommon.

-- The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral birth control pills have been linked to breast cancer, due to increased levels of estrogen.


Symptoms:
The first symptoms of breast cancer are usually an area of thickened tissue in the breast, or a lump in the breast or in an armpit.
Other symptoms include:
§    a pain in the armpits or breast that does not change with the monthly cycle
§    pitting or redness of the skin of the breast, like the skin of an orange
§    a rash around or on one of the nipples
§    a discharge from a nipple, possibly containing blood
§    a sunken or inverted nipple
§    a change in the size or shape of the breast
§    peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin on the breast or nipple
Most lumps are not cancerous, but women should have them checked by a health care professional.

Prevention:
There is no sure way to prevent breast cancer, but some lifestyle decisions can significantly reduce the risk of breast and other types of cancer.
These include:
§    avoiding excess alcohol consumption
§    following a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables
§    getting enough exercise
§    maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI)
§    Early detection and treatment is still the best strategy for a better cancer outcome. The following is a common strategy, but ask your doctor exactly what you should do to help prevent breast cancer or find it early:
-Check your breasts once a month, three to five days after your menstrual period ends. Have a thorough medical checkup once a year, and have annual mammograms. Some experts, including the American Cancer Society, recommend starting screening mammography at age 45, while others recommend beginning regular mammogram screening at age 50.Some experts recommend starting mammograms at age 40 or earlier, especially if you have a family history of breast cancer. Talk to your doctor about when you should have your first mammogram.

§    If you use contraception, ask your doctor about the pros and cons of birth control pills.
§    If you are near or in menopause, ask your doctor if you should use hormone replacement therapy to treat menopause symptoms. Studies suggest that hormone replacement, especially therapies with a combination of estrogens and progestins, can increase the risk of breast cancer. You and your doctor can make this decision based on your risk of breast cancer.
§    If you are at high risk for breast cancer, certain drugs that block the effects of estrogen, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer. The risks and benefits of using these medications should be discussed with your doctor.

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Signs of Alzheimer's

The Signs of Alzheimer's

 

Understanding the Signs of Alzheimer's

As you age, you may get more forgetful, but Alzheimer's disease is much more than that.
The Alzheimer's Association explains these warning signs:
·    Forgetting information of life-changing importance. This may include new information that you've just learned, important information or asking for the same information repeatedly.
·    Having difficulty with planning and problem-solving, or difficulty with everyday tasks and chores.
·    Getting confused about where you are, the date, or how you got somewhere. You may also have trouble with spatial issues, such as judging distances or reading.
·    Having trouble reading and writing, and remembering words.
·    Losing things frequently, and being unable to remember where you recently were. You may also make poor decisions and practice poor hygiene.
·    Withdrawing socially, or having changes in your personality or mood.


What Causes Alzheimer's Disease?


People who get Alzheimer's disease are usually older, but the disease isn’t a normal part of aging. Scientists aren’t sure why some people get it and others don’t. But they do know that the symptoms it causes seem to come from two main types of nerve damage:
§    Nerve cells get tangles, called neurofibrillary tangles.
§    Protein deposits called beta-amyloid plaques build up in the brain.

Researchers aren’t sure what causes this damage or how it happens, but it could be a protein in blood called ApoE (for apolipoprotein E), which the body uses to move cholesterol in the blood.
There are a few types of ApoE that may be linked to a higher risk of Alzheimer's. It could be that certain forms of it cause brain damage. Some scientists think it plays a role in building the plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s.
Whether or not ApoE partly causes Alzheimer's, genes almost certainly play a role in the disease. Someone with a parent who had the disease is more likely to have it, too.
There is some evidence that people with high blood pressure and high cholesterol have a greater chance of getting Alzheimer's. More rarely, head injuries may be a reason, too -- the more severe they are, the greater the risk of Alzheimer's later in life.
Scientists are still studying many of these theories, but it’s clear that the biggest risks linked to Alzheimer's disease are being older and having Alzheimer's in your family.


Can Alzheimer's disease be prevented?


As the exact cause of Alzheimer's disease isn't clear, there's no known way to prevent the condition. However, there are things you can do that may reduce your risk or delay the onset of dementia, such as:
·    stopping smoking and cutting down on alcohol
·    eating a healthy, balanced diet and maintaining a healthy weight
·    staying physically fit and mentally active
These measures have other health benefits, such as lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease and improving your overall mental health.

 

How Alzheimer's disease is treated


There's no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but medication is available that can help relieve some of the symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition in some people.
Various other types of support are also available to help people with Alzheimer's live as independently as possible, such as making changes to your home environment so it's easier to move around and remember daily tasks.
Psychological treatments such as cognitive stimulation therapy may also be offered to help support your memory, problem solving skills and language ability.

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