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Fasting and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Fasting and Irritable Bowel Syndrome


 A healthy diet is important for all of us. However, some people with IBS find certain foods of a normal healthy diet can trigger symptoms or make symptoms worse. Evidence is emerging that using the FODMAP diet may improve IBS bowel symptoms (see reference below). Current national guidelines about IBS include the following points about diet, which may help to minimise symptoms:
·    Have regular meals and take time to eat at a leisurely pace.
·    Avoid missing meals or leaving long gaps between eating.
·    Drink at least eight cups of fluid per day, especially water or other non-caffeinated drinks such as herbal teas.
·    Restrict tea and coffee to three cups per day (as caffeine may be a factor in some people).
·    Restrict the amount of fizzy drinks that you have to a minimum.
·    Don't drink too much alcohol. (Some people report an improvement in symptoms when they cut down from drinking a lot of alcohol, or stop smoking if they smoke.)
·    Consider limiting intake of high-fibre food (but see the section above where an increase may help in some cases).
·    Limit fresh fruit to three portions (of 80 g each) per day.
·    If you have diarrhoea, avoid sorbitol, an artificial sweetener found in sugar-free sweets (including chewing gum) and in drinks, and in some diabetic and slimming products.
·    If you have a lot of wind and bloating, consider increasing your intake of oats (for example, oat-based breakfast cereal or porridge) and linseeds (up to one tablespoon per day). You can buy linseeds from health food shop
·    Maintain good physical fitness to improve bowel function and help reduce stress

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Ramadan & The Medicines you take

Ramadan & The Medicines you take

 

During Ramadan, some alterations take place in the functioning of our body. Changes in the circadian rhythm (internal body clock) of biochemical, physiological and behavioural processes also occur. As a result drug absorption, their bioavailability, toxicity as well as interaction between food and drug may be affected.

The situation may be compounded when medications are taken indiscriminately. It has been found that many patients with chronic illness often insist on fasting and do not take their medications or take all the drugs in one single dose leading to emergency hospitalization.

Patients who take their medicine two or three times a day may switch to slow-release once daily formulations. for example, patients taking drugs for high blood pressure (two or three times a day) may change over to once daily preparations. Similarly, asthmatic patients who are taking theophylline two or three times may change to slow-release once daily formulations.

Again, the absorption of some drugs are also affected by food and the quality of food. for instance, Rifampicin (a drug used in tuberculosis) should be taken in empty stomach and during Ramadan, it should be taken 30 minutes before pre-dawn meal. Moreover, quality of certain food also decrease absorption such as spicy, fatty foods taken during Ramadan decreases the absorption of certain drugs.

Intake of beverages like tea, coffee, orange juices, and smoking at the time of breaking fast can increase gastric acidity resulting in gastro-intestinal side effects. Thus, many medications need readjustment during Ramadan.

For such situations a doctor should be consulted. Fortunately many drugs are available in slow-release once daily formulations for better patient's compliance particularly during Ramadan. Studies have shown that many patients arbitrarily change the dose and timing of their medications without taking medical advices. Moreover, many patients are also not aware of the medications they can take during Ramadan without breaking the fast.

The choice of drugs and the route of administration remain a matter of concern for many patients and doctors. To settle the difference of opinions and to standardise the choice of route of administration a religious-medical seminar was held in Morocco, participated by distinguished Muslim Jurists, Religious experts, medical practitioners and pharmacologists and specialists in other human sciences.

In the seminar entitled "An Islam view of certain contemporary medical issues" the main focus was on the substances and actions that nullify fasting.

In the discussion it was agreed unanimously that the following routes of administration of drugs do not nullify fasting:
1.    Anaesthetic agents.
2.    All substances absorbed into the body through skin such as cream, ointments, medicated plaster etc.
3.    Anal injections.
4.    Eye and ear drops.
5.    Insertion into the vagina of pessaries, vaginal washes, medical ovules etc.
6.    Injection through the skin, muscle and joints or veins (excepting I.V. feeding).
7.    Inhalers for asthma.
8.    Mouth washes, gurgles, oral sprays provided nothing is swallowed.
9.    Nitroglycerine tablets placed under the tongue for treatment of angina (heart pain).
10.    Nasal sprays and drops.
11.    Oxygen.
12.    Surgery involving general anaesthesia.


In conclusion, Ramadan is a period of altered body rhythm and life habits. Accordingly, drug dosing needs to be adjusted. The timing of intake of medicine (before, during or after food) influence the absorption of drugs. Ramadan is further characterized by repeated fasting and breaking of fast and altered circadian rhythm that last four weeks.

These changes influence the chronobiological parameters (i.e, the route of administration/the dosing, absorption, food-drug interaction and bioavailability etc) which can last beyond the end of the Ramadan.

Therefore, return to the pre-Ramadan bodily functions may take some more time. This fact should be kept in mind both by the patients and medical practitioners.

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Healthy Habits to follow in Ramadan

 

Healthy Habits to follow in Ramadan


1.    Drink 8 glasses of water daily from Iftar to Suhour to prevent dehydration and constipation
2.    Sleep for 6-8 hours a day to get sufficient mental and physical rest. Less sleep means you will feel tired during the day which in turns leads to less productivity and activity
3.    Have a balanced varied Iftar which incorporates dates, soup, salad, a main dish, fruits and a small piece of Ramadan sweet
4.    Walk or participate in some kind of physical activity
5.    Have Suhour to fill your body with energy and help regulate your blood sugar

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Hyperacusis

Hyperacusis

Hyperacusis is a condition that arises from a problem in the way the brain’s central auditory processing center perceives noise. It can often lead to pain and discomfort. Individuals with hyperacusis have difficulty tolerating sounds which do not seem loud to others, such as the noise from running faucet water, riding in a car, walking on leaves, dishwasher, fan on the refrigerator, shuffling papers. Although all sounds may be perceived as too loud, high frequency sounds may be particularly troublesome.

 

Causes

There are some diseases or disorders that are linked to hyperacusis, such as: 

  • Bell’s palsy

  • Chronic fatigue syndrome

  • Lyme disease

  • Meniere’s disease

  • Post traumatic stress disorder

  • Depression

  • Autism

Additionally, hyperacusis is seen in patients who have experienced a head trauma, such as an air bag deployment, surgery to the jaw or face, or a viral infection of the inner ear. One major cause of hyperacusis is loud noise exposure. It may be triggered by a single intense noise such as a gunshot, or it may develop gradually from listening to loud noise without hearing protection. People exposed to loud levels of noise through their occupation, whether as a machinist or a musician, should be protective of their hearing to avoid noise-induced hearing loss and other changes in their hearing such as tinnitus or hyperacusis.

Treatment

There are no specific corrective surgical or medical treatments for hyperacusis. However, sound therapy may be used to “retrain” the auditory processing center of the brain to accept everyday sounds. This involves the use of a noise-generating device worn on the affected ear or ears. Those suffering from hyperacusis may be uncomfortable with placing sound directly in their ear, but the device produces a gentle static-like sound (white noise) that is barely audible. Completion of sound therapy may take up to 12 months, and usually improves sound tolerance.Because social situations are often painfully loud for those with hyperacusis, withdrawal, social isolation, and depression are common.

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Human Stem Cells Used to Create Light-Sensitive Eye Cells

Human Stem Cells Used to Create Light-Sensitive Eye Cells

Using human stem cells, researchers created eye cells capable of responding to light. Specifically, the researchers created retina cells. The retina is a layer of light-sensitive cells that line the inside of the eye. The retina sends visual messages to the optic nerve in the brain to create visual images, according to the U.S. National Eye Institute.


 Although the cells created by the researchers haven't yet produced a visual signal the brain can interpret into an image, the researchers noted that this study is just a first step. They suggested their findings could eventually lead to the development of genetically engineered retina cell transplants that can stop or reverse blindness in people with retinal disease.

"We have basically created a miniature human retina in a dish that not only has the architectural organization of the retina, but also has the ability to sense light," study leader M. Valeria Canto-Soler, an assistant professor of ophthalmology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, said in a university news release.

The study, published online June 10 in Nature Communications, involved so-called human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). These are adult cells reprogrammed into a primitive state. This allowed the researchers to turn them into early stage retinal cells that would then go on to form the light-sensitive retinal tissue found in the back of the eye.

Retinal tissue is made up of seven major types of cells, the researchers explained. These cells are organized into layers that absorb and process light. These layers also transmit the visual signals that are interpreted by the brain. The retinal cells grown in the lab recreated this multi-layered, three-dimensional form of the human retina.

"We knew that a 3-D cellular structure was necessary if we wanted to reproduce functional characteristics of the retina, but when we began this work, we didn't think stem cells would be able to build up a retina almost on their own. In our system, somehow the cells knew what to do," said Canto-Soler.

While these cells were grown in a petri dish, they matured in a manner similar to what might occur in the eyes of a developing fetus. At the equivalent of 28 weeks' gestation, the researchers tested the mini-retinas to see if the photo receptors were able to transform light into visual signals. The photo receptors grown in the lab responded to light in the same way as human retinas.

The study's authors said their findings provide scientists the ability to study the cause of retinal diseases on human tissue rather than animals. They added it may allow for the testing of drugs to treat individual patients specifically. In the future, the researchers suggested, diseased or dead retinal tissue may be replaced with tissue grown in a lab, which might help reverse blindness for some people.

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